How Does Ketamine Therapy Work?

How does ketamine therapy work? As with any number of medications, we don’t know how it works. What we do know is that it does work. Ketamine therapy, primarily used to treat depression, operates differently from traditional antidepressants. Ketamine is an anesthetic that blocks NMDA receptors in the brain. Still, its effects on depression may stem from its interactions with glutamate, a neurotransmitter linked to mood regulation. 

By blocking NMDA receptors, ketamine increases the release of glutamate and activates other receptors, such as AMPA receptors, which promote synaptic plasticity and the formation of new neural connections. These neurobiological changes may reverse the dysfunctional neural circuits associated with depression, leading to rapid and sustained improvements in mood.

During a ketamine therapy session, patients typically receive a low-dose infusion of ketamine administered intravenously over about 40 minutes. The effects of ketamine are felt within minutes, with many patients experiencing a sense of euphoria or dissociation known as the “k-hole.” However, it’s the longer-term effects that are of interest in depression treatment. 

Studies have shown that a series of ketamine infusions, often administered over several weeks, can produce significant and lasting reductions in depressive symptoms, even in individuals who have not responded to other treatments. While the exact mechanisms underlying ketamine’s antidepressant effects are not clear, its ability to rapidly alleviate symptoms and provide relief for those suffering from treatment-resistant depression has made it a promising option in mental health care.

Ketamine Offers Patients an Alternative

Ketamine therapy has emerged as a promising alternative treatment for depression, particularly for individuals who have not responded to traditional antidepressants or other therapeutic interventions. Unlike conventional antidepressants, which may take weeks or even months to produce noticeable effects, ketamine therapy often yields rapid improvements in mood and alleviation of depressive symptoms.

depression concept

Many patients report feeling relief within hours or days after receiving a ketamine infusion, making it a valuable option for those in acute distress or experiencing suicidal ideation. Ketamine’s unique mechanism of action, which involves modulating glutamate receptors in the brain to promote synaptic plasticity and neural connectivity, offers a novel approach to addressing the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of depression. As a result, ketamine therapy not only provides rapid symptom relief but also has the potential to induce long-lasting remission and improve overall quality of life for individuals struggling with treatment-resistant depression.

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A Journey of Healing: Finding Light Through Ketamine Therapy

In the heart of Broomfield, amidst the constant hum of life, lived Emma, a woman weighed down by the heavy burden of depression. Every day felt like a battle against the shadows that clouded her mind, draining her of joy and vitality. Despite countless therapy sessions and a carousel of antidepressants, Emma found herself trapped in a cycle of despair, unable to break free from the grip of her mental illness.

One fateful day, however, Emma’s therapist introduced her to the concept of ketamine therapy—a revolutionary treatment that offered a glimmer of hope amidst the darkness. Intrigued yet skeptical, Emma embarked on this new journey with cautious optimism, unsure of what lay ahead. As she settled into the warm and inviting treatment room, a sense of apprehension washed over her, mingled with a flicker of anticipation. With each gentle infusion, she felt a wave of warmth envelop her, like a beacon of light piercing through the storm clouds.

A Newfound Sense of Clarity and Purpose

In the days and weeks that followed, Emma embarked on a transformative odyssey fueled by the healing powers of ketamine. With each infusion, she felt the weight of her depression gradually lift, replaced by a newfound sense of clarity and purpose. Colors seemed brighter, laughter felt genuine, and even the simplest pleasures brought her immense joy. As she navigated the labyrinth of her emotions, Emma discovered an inner strength she never knew existed—a resilience born from the depths of her struggles. 

With the support of her therapist and the unwavering love of her family and friends, Emma emerged from the shadows, reborn and radiant. No longer shackled by the chains of depression, she embraced life with open arms, savoring each precious moment as a gift to be cherished. And though the road ahead may still be fraught with challenges, Emma faces the future with a newfound sense of hope and resilience, knowing that she is stronger than she ever thought possible.

Who Is Eligible for Ketamine Therapy?

Eligibility for ketamine therapy typically extends to individuals who have been diagnosed with treatment-resistant depression, meaning they have not responded adequately to traditional antidepressant medications or psychotherapy. Candidates for ketamine therapy may include those experiencing severe depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, or acute distress where rapid intervention is necessary.

woman with depression

However, eligibility criteria may vary depending on the healthcare provider and treatment facility, as each may have specific protocols and guidelines in place. It’s essential for individuals considering ketamine therapy to undergo a thorough assessment by a qualified mental health professional to determine if they are suitable candidates for this treatment approach.

side effects

What Are the Side Effects of Ketamine Therapy?

Ketamine therapy, while generally well-tolerated, can potentially cause side effects in some individuals. It’s essential for patients considering this treatment to be aware of these possible adverse reactions:

  • Nausea and vomiting: Some individuals may experience gastrointestinal discomfort, including nausea and vomiting, during or shortly after ketamine administration.


  • Dizziness or lightheadedness: Ketamine can cause feelings of dizziness or lightheadedness, particularly during the infusion process or as the medication takes effect.
  • Changes in blood pressure and heart rate: Ketamine may temporarily alter blood pressure and heart rate, leading to fluctuations that can cause sensations of palpitations or a rapid heartbeat.
  • Disorientation or confusion: Ketamine’s dissociative effects can sometimes lead to feelings of disorientation, confusion, or altered perception of time and space.
  • Headache: Some individuals may experience headaches as a side effect of ketamine therapy, which can range from mild to moderate in severity.
  • Increased salivation or dry mouth: Ketamine may affect saliva production, leading to increased salivation or, conversely, a sensation of dry mouth.
  • Psychological effects: In rare cases, ketamine therapy can trigger psychological reactions such as anxiety, agitation, or hallucinations, particularly at higher doses or in susceptible individuals.


Patients need to discuss any concerns or potential side effects with their healthcare provider before undergoing ketamine therapy and to be closely monitored during treatment to ensure their safety and well-being.

Ketamine’s Role in Neural Plasticity

The magic of ketamine lies in its ability to promote neuroplasticity. Neuroplasticity refers to the brain’s capacity to rewire and form new connections between neurons. Depression and other mental health disorders are associated with impaired neural connectivity, leading to negative thought patterns and emotional distress. Ketamine works by stimulating the regrowth of synaptic connections in key brain regions, allowing patients to develop healthier, more adaptive patterns of thinking and emotional processing.

happy woman

Personalization of Treatment

Every individual’s experience with ketamine therapy is unique, and its effects can vary depending on factors such as dosage, frequency of sessions, and the patient’s mental health history. As a result, treatment plans are tailored to each patient’s specific needs and responses. Regular assessments and adjustments ensure the therapy remains effective and supportive throughout the patient’s journey to healing.

Ketamine therapy is revolutionizing the landscape of mental health treatment. Its rapid and transformative effects, coupled with the synergistic combination of medication and therapy, have provided hope to countless individuals battling treatment-resistant mental health conditions. However, it is essential to remember that ketamine therapy is not a one-size-fits-all solution. It should only be administered under the supervision of qualified medical professionals and mental health practitioners. As research into ketamine’s efficacy and safety continues, we can anticipate even more breakthroughs that will help those in need find relief and regain control over their mental well-being.


The Therapeutic Effects of Ketamine in Mental Health Disorders: A Narrative Review

Ketamine for the treatment of mental health and substance use disorders: comprehensive systematic review